Plato

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MENDELSSOHN, Moses. Phaedon oder über die Unsterblichkeit der Seele, in drey Gesprächen. Karlsruhe, Schmieder, 1780.
One of the ca. 10 editions of one of Mendelssohns most famous books printed during his lifetime. Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786) was a German Jewish philosopher and a central figure in the Haskalah (i.e., Jewish Enlightenment, in 18th-century Germany) and he is certainly the best known representative today. For some he was the third Moses, the other two being the Biblical lawgiver and Moses Maimonides heralding a new era in the history of the Jewish people. For others, his ideas led towards assimilation, loss of identity for Jews and the dilution of traditional Judaism. He was also the grandfather of the composers Fanny and Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdi. In 1762 Mendelssohn won the prize offered by the Berlin Academy for an essay on the application of mathematical proofs to metaphysics; among the competitors were Thomas Abbt and Immanuel Kant. As a result of his correspondence with Abbt, Mendelssohn resolved to write on the Immortality of the Soul. Materialistic views were at the time rampant and fashionable, and faith in immortality was at a low ebb. At this favourable juncture appeared the <I>Phädon oder über die Unsterblichkeit der Seele</I> (Phädon or On the Immortality of Souls; first edition: Berlin & Stettin, F. Nicolai, 1767). Modelled on Plato's dialogue of the same name , Mendelssohn's work possessed some of the charm of its Greek exemplar and impressed the German world with its beauty and lucidity of style. The Phädon was an immediate success, and besides being often reprinted in German was speedily translated into nearly all the European languages, including English. The author was hailed as the "German Plato," or the "German Socrates". Moses did meet Gotthold Ephraim Lessing in the '70s and became good friends. Mendelsohn served as a model for Lessing's famous <I>Nathan der Weise</I>, published in 1779.In Plato's Phaedo dialogue, Phaedo is asked to relate for him the execution day of Socrates. Phaedo had been present that day with his fellow Athenians. It took some courage to be counted as a friend of Socrates at that point, as then people who oversaw Socrates' execution, and the Persian-controlled "Democratic" party of Athens who organized Socrates trial, would have noted who was prepared to carry on Socrates' work. Plato's sublime treatment of Socrates' life and death, willfully and deliberately created what we today call "classical" culture. By his dialogues, he recruited youth to Socrates' example of truth-seeking behavior, establishing the Platonic Academy that lasted a thousand years. Moses Mendelssohn translated Plato's Phaedo into German, but recast Socrates with the advances that Leibniz had made from Plato's time. As Mendelssohn states, opening up his<B><I> </I></B>Preface:<B><I> </I></B>The following work is written in imitation of the <I>Phaedon</I> of Plato. But the author "has recourse solely to the lights of the moderns, and makes Socrates speak as a philosopher of the eighteenth century".Mendelssohn launched his Phaedon project in the decade before the American Revolution, because European culture, he argued, suffered from the suppression of Gottfried Leibniz's powerful thoughts and works.<B><U> </U></B>Mendelssohn smashed the stranglehold over Leibniz's methods. At the same time, 1765, Mendelssohn's collaborators in Göttingen, Professors<B> </B>R. E. Raspe and Abraham Kaestner, published the first edition of Leibniz's <I>New Essays on Human Understanding, </I>decimating John Locke's feudal notions of man's mind and mission.In Mendelssohn's homeland of Prussia, the ruler, Frederick the Great, suffered from a Voltairean infection of the sophistical and cynical "Enlightenment". In 1759, Voltaire's sophomoric work, <I>Candide </I>had attempted to ridicule Leibniz's graceful development of Plato's notion that the world was bent toward the Good. Mendelssohn's re-working of Plato's<I> Phaedo</I> included specific arguments crafted to devastate such influences.The result was his Phaedon movement, a movement that was at the core of the European support for the American Revolution, and that inspired Mozart, Schiller, and the German classical revival. Plato responded to the unjust execution of Socrates by going beyond his own destiny. Mendelssohn responded to the attempted second burial of Leibniz by taking courage from Socrates, and launching a beautiful pursuit of happiness.This 'modern Socrates' of the German classical period, Mendelssohn, has created a beautiful translation and elaboration of Plato's <I>Phädo</I> leadingto a revolution in thought, and a subsequent renaissance in Germany. The debt of the German classical period to ancient Greece is embodied in Mendelssohn's <I>Phädon</I>, as is the promise of the American Revolution.After the title and preface follows the 'Leben und Character des Socrates' (pp. 1-52), and 'Phädon, oder über de Unsterblichkeit der Seele ('pp. 1-224, both with separate half-titles).
Good copy.- (Some damp staining and usual browning at places, binding rubbed, spine damaged, one leaf from the preliminaries missing? Some of the Karlsruhe editions have 5, some 6 preliminary lvs., all have 224 pp.).
Goedeke IV/1, 488, 8; Graesse IV, p. 485; cf. <I>Gesamtverz. deutschspr. Schrifttums</I>, 94, p. 423.

2 parts in one vol. 8vo. Contemporary half calf, ribbed spine with gilt floral stamp in compartments with two title labels lettered in gold, marbled end-papers, red painted edges. Woodcut vignette on title. (10), 52, 224 pp.

[SW: 18th Century; Literary History; Enlightenment; Germany; *AMERICAS; Hebraica, Judaica & Holy Land]

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Wolfgang Detel: Ideal and Culture of Knowledge in Plato, Steiner Franz Verlag,Apr 2004 ISBN: 9783515083379
The volume collects the contributions to an international conference held at the University of Frankfurt on the relationship between epistemic practices (culture of knowledge) and the concept of knowledge (ideal of knowledge) in Plato. For Plato, both aspects of knowledge were not only of equal importance, he was also well aware of their interdependence, taking into account that no philosopher has yet reached the epistemic level of knowledge. His acknowledgement of this interdependence is, as the papers of this volume show, further counter-evidence against the traditional reading that attributes to Plato a two-worlds-view which tries to keep ordinary belief and philosophical knowledge ontologically distinct. The contributions include essays from both ancient philosophers and ancient historians. Topics of the essays are e.g. the conception of education in the 'Republic', the epistemic ascent in the 'Symposion', the knowledge of knowledge in the 'Charmides', the role of perception in the 'Theaetetus' and the sophistic environment of Plato.The volume collects the contributions to an international conference held at the University of Frankfurt on the relationship between epistemic practices (culture of knowledge) and the concept of knowledge (ideal of knowledge) in Plato. For Plato, both aspects of knowledge were not only of equal importance, he was also well aware of their interdependence, taking into account that no philosopher has yet reached the epistemic level of knowledge. His acknowledgement of this interdependence is, as the papers of this volume show, further counter-evidence against the traditional reading that attributes to Plato a two-worlds-view which tries to keep ordinary belief and philosophical knowledge ontologically distinct. The contributions include essays from both ancient philosophers and ancient historians. Topics of the essays are e.g. the conception of education in the 'Republic', the epistemic ascent in the 'Symposion', the knowledge of knowledge in the 'Charmides', the role of perception in the 'Theaetetus' and the sophistic environment of Plato.

NEUBUCH! 240x170x32 mm; 15

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Bostock, David: Plato's Theaetetus. Clarendon Paperbacks. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991. ISBN: 9780198239307
Ein gutes und sauberes Exemplar. - Inhalt: Chronology -- The Theaetetus and the Sophist -- Background: Knowledge and the Forms -- The Meno and Recollection -- Forms as Paradigms -- Forms as Universals -- Forms and Knowledge in the Timaeus -- The Question 'What is Knowledge?' (143d-151d) -- THE THEORY THAT PERCEPTION IS KNOWLEDGE -- Theaetetus and Protagoras (151e-152c) -- Protagoras and Heraclitus (152d-153d) -- A Priori Considerations -- First Statement: 153d-154b -- Second Statement: 155e-157c -- Third Statement: 157e-160a -- Final Statement: 160a-e 3. Comments -- THE REFUTATION OF THE THEORY -- The Refutation of Protagoras (161a-179c) -- The Refutation of Heraclitus (181c-183b) -- The Refutation of Theaetetus (184b-186e) -- Perception and its Objects -- Grasping the 'Common Things' -- The Final Argument (186c7-el2) -- The 'orthodox' interpretation -- Cooper's interpretation -- McDowell's interpretation -- A Comment -- KNOWLEDGE AND BELIEF -- FALSE BELIEF -- First Puzzle: Knowing what one is thinking of (187e-188c) -- Second Puzzle: Believing what is not (188d-189b) -- Return to the First Puzzle: 'Other-Judging' (189c-191a) -- First Solution: The Wax Tablet (191a-196c) -- Second Solution: The Aviary (196c-200c) -- Transition: Knowledge as Requiring an Account (200e-201c) -- TRUE BELIEF WITH AN ACCOUNT -- The Theory of Socrates' Dream (201c-202d) -- The Refutation of Socrates' Dream (202e-206c) -- Three Ways of Taking 'An Account' (206c-210a) -- Lines of Interpretation -- Cornford's Interpretation -- Fine's Interpretation -- White's Interpretation -- EVALUATION: The Coherence of the Theaetetus -- Resolution of Plato's Problem. - Plato's Theaetetus is one of the most: fascinating of all his dialogues. It has the charming style of his early writings, yet the arguments reveal a depth and sophistication which is new. In the Thecetetus, Plato is looking afresh at a problem to which, he now realises, he had earlier given an inadequate answer: the problem of the nature of knowledge. What Plato has to say on this question is of great interest and importance, not only to scholars of Plato, but even to philosophers with wholly contemporary interests. This book is a sustained philosophical analysis and critique of the Theaetetus. David Bostock provides a detailed examination of Plato's arguments and the issues that they raise. He adjudicates on rival interpretations of the text, and looks at the relations between the Theaetetus and other works of Plato. The book does not presuppose any knowledge of Greek. It is accessible to undergraduate philosophers, but also has much to offer the Platonic scholar. (Verlagstext). ISBN 9780198239307

285 S. Originalbroschur.

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Georgios Anagnostopoulos: Reason and Analysis in Ancient Greek Philosophy, Springer-Verlag GmbH,Jul 2013 ISBN: 9789400760035
This distinctive collection of original articles features contributions from many of the leading scholars of ancient Greek philosophy. They explore the concept of reason and the method of analysis and the central role they play in the philosophies of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. They engage with salient themes in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, and political theory, as well as tracing links between each thinker s ideas on selected topics. The volume contains analyses of Plato s Socrates, focusing on his views of moral psychology, the obligation to obey the law, the foundations of politics, justice and retribution, and Socratic virtue. On Plato s Republic, the discussions cover the relationship between politics and philosophy, the primacy of reason over the soul s non-rational capacities, the analogy of the city and the soul, and our responsibility for choosing how we live our own lives. The anthology also probes Plato s analysis of logos (reason or language) which underlies his philosophy including the theory of forms. A quartet of reflections explores Aristotelian themes including the connections between knowledge and belief, the nature of essence and function, and his theories of virtue and grace. The volume concludes with an insightful intellectual memoir by David Keyt which charts the rise of analytic classical scholarship in the past century and along the way provides entertaining anecdotes involving major figures in modern academic philosophy. Blending academic authority with creative flair and demonstrating the continuing interest of ancient Greek philosophy, this book will be a valuable addition to the libraries of all those studying and researching the origins of Western philosophy.This exceptional collection of articles boasts contributions from many of the leading scholars of the theme of reason and analysis in Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. They explore one of the most central concepts in Greek philosophy: our human capacity for reasoning. The original and illuminating accounts of these subtle academic minds cover the views held by Greece s trio of philosophic triumvirate on the nature and application of reasoning. They engage with salient themes in their epistemological output, as well as tracing links between each thinker s ideas on chosen topics. The volume features analyses of Plato s Socrates, focusing on his views of moral psychology, obligations to the law, the foundations of politics, justice and retribution, and Socratic virtue. On Plato s Republic, the material includes the relationship between politics and philosophy, the primacy of reason over the soul s non-rational characteristics, the analogy of the city and the soul, and our responsibility for choosing how we live our lives. The anthology also probes Plato s commentary on the contribution of logos (reason or language) to the theory of forms. A quartet of reflections on Aristotelian themes such as the connections between knowledge and belief, the nature of essence and function, and his theories of virtue and grace, complete the set. Blending academic authority with creative flair, this book will be a prized addition to the libraries of all those studying and researching the tenets of Greek and Western philosophy.

NEUBUCH! 246x159x25 mm; 120; 2013.. Aufl.

[SW: Ethik; Ethos; Philosophie / Ethik; Erste Philosophie; Metaphysik; Philosophie / Metaphysik]

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