The rapid growth of interest in powders and their surface properties in many diverse industries prompted the writing of this book for those who have the need to make meaningful measurements without the benefit of years of experience. It is intended as an introduction to some of the elementary theory and experimental methods used to study the surface area, porosity, density, and particle size of powders. It may be found useful by those with little or no training in solid surfaces who have the need to learn quickly the rudiments of surface area, density, pore size, and particle size measurements. S. Lowell J.E. Shields Symbols Use of symbols for purposes other than those indicated in the following table are so defined in the text. Some symbols not shown in the table are also defined in the text. d adsorbate cross-sectional area A area; condensation coefficient; collision frequency C BET constant c concentration D diameter; coefficient of thermal diffusion E adsorption potential permeability aspect factor f F flow rate; force; feed rate g gravitational constant G Gibbs free energy S G free surface energy h heat of immersion per unit area; height H enthalpy heat of immersion Hi heat of adsorption Hsv BET intercept; filament current k thermal conductivity; specific reaction rate K Harkins-Jura constant C length L heat of liquefaction M mass M molecular weight MPa megapascals number of moles n number of molecules; number of particles N N Avogadro's num'ber molecular collisions per square cm per second
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