Galois Theory plays a key role in many mathematical disciplines, such as number theory, algebra, topology, and geometry. This special volume of the Luxembourg based peer-reviewed mathematics journal "Travaux mathématiques" unites four instructional texts that have grown out of lectures delivered at the Winter School on Galois Theory held at the University of Luxembourg in February 2012. It also includes one research article. Gebhard Böckle's contribution is a quite comprehensive survey on Galois representations. It focusses on the key ideas, and the long list of recommended references enables the reader to pursue himself/herself any of the mentioned topics in greater depth. Michael Schein's notes sketch the proof due to Khare and Wintenberger of one of the major theorems in arithmetic algebraic geometry in recent years, namely Serre's Modularity Conjecture. Moshe Jarden's contribution is based on his book on algebraic patching. It develops the method of algebraic patching from scratch and gives applications in contemporary Galois theory. David Harbater's text is complementary to Jarden's notes, and describes recent applications of patching in other aspects of algebra, for example: differential algebra, local-global principles, quadratic forms, and more. The focus is on the big picture and on providing the reader with intuition. The research article by Wulf-Dieter Geyer and Moshe Jarden concerns model completeness of valued PAC fields.
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