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The Bimaristans were established in the eastern Islamic world in (2 H/8 AD) centuries in Iraq and Bagdad followed by other countries in the Islamic world. These Bimarstans had the same purpose and function of creating a place where the patients are treated and given medicine, and a college where students learn medicine and pharmacy. The design of The Bimarstans was similar. They were divided in two parts for men and women, and each part contained a hall for all types of diseases. The Bimaristans contained the same architectural elements: courtyard, lecture hall or iwan, library, patients’ rooms, physicians’ rooms, outpatient clinics, pharmacy, bathrooms, kitchen, and storage areas. Most of The Bimaristans were built on a cruciform plan with 4 iwans around the yard, while some had 2 iwans , with two to four arcades surrounding the yard. The design of The Bimaristan was influenced by Al madrasa (school), and by the design of the Arabic house. The materials used differed from one country to another; brick was used in Turkey, while stone was used in Syria and Egypt. Domes were always built with brick. The decorations too differed from country to another and from period to another. We can see cufic letters and geometrical figures on stucco in Seljuk period in Turkey influenced by Iranian architecture. In Aleppo the ornaments in the Zanki period is concentrated on the portal of the entrance which contained inscriptions, while in Mamlouk period the inscriptions, stalactites, junked voussoires and stripped masonry were largely used.
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