2015 Guide to Earthquakes from Fracking, Hydraulic Fracturing, and Shale Gas - Underground Wastewater Disposal, New USGS Report, Incorporating Induced Seismicity in Seismic Hazard Model

 
9781511872409: 2015 Guide to Earthquakes from Fracking, Hydraulic Fracturing, and Shale Gas - Underground Wastewater Disposal, New USGS Report, Incorporating Induced Seismicity in Seismic Hazard Model
Vom Verlag:

This unique guide presents up-to-date information about the ongoing issue of earthquakes in states such as Oklahoma and Texas caused by fracking and hydraulic fracturing. It includes the April 2015 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) report, Incorporating Induced Seismicity in the 2014 United States National Seismic Hazard Model — Results of 2014 Workshop and Sensitivity Studies. Significant strides in science have been made to better understand potential ground shaking from induced earthquakes, which are earthquakes triggered by man-made practices. Earthquake activity has sharply increased since 2009 in the central and eastern United States. The increase has been linked to industrial operations that dispose of wastewater by injecting it into deep wells. The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) report outlines a preliminary set of models to forecast how hazardous ground shaking could be in the areas where sharp increases in seismicity have been recorded. The models ultimately aim to calculate how often earthquakes are expected to occur in the next year and how hard the ground will likely shake as a result. This report looked at the central and eastern United States; future research will incorporate data from the western states as well. This report also identifies issues that must be resolved to develop a final hazard model, which is scheduled for release at the end of the year after the preliminary models are further examined. These preliminary models should be considered experimental in nature and should not be used for decision-making. USGS scientists identified 17 areas within eight states with increased rates of induced seismicity. Since 2000, several of these areas have experienced high levels of seismicity, with substantial increases since 2009 that continue today. This is the first comprehensive assessment of the hazard levels associated with induced earthquakes in these areas, including the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Texas. Scientists developed the models by analyzing earthquakes in these zones and considering their rates, locations, maximum magnitude, and ground motions.

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