Physical Chemistry

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9780618123414: Physical Chemistry
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Book by Keith J Laidler John H Meiser Bryan C Sanctuary

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Note: Each chaper concludes with Key Equations, Problems, and Suggested Reading. 1. The Nature of Physical Chemistry and the Kinetic Theory of Gases 1.1 The Nature of Physical Chemistry 1.2 Some Concepts from Classical Mechanics 1.3 Systems, States, and Equilibrium 1.4 Thermal Equilibrium 1.5 Pressure and Boyle's Law Biography: Robert Boyle 1.6 Gay-Lussac's (Charles's) Law 1.7 The Ideal Gas Thermometer 1.8 The Equation of State for an Ideal Gas 1.9 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Ideal Gases 1.10 The Barometric Distribution Law 1.11 The Maxwell Distribution of Molecular Speeds and Translational Energies 1.12 Real Gases 1.13 Equations of State 1.14 The Virial Equation Appendix: Some Definite and Indefinite Integrals Often Used in Physical Chemistry 2. The First Law of Thermodynamics 2.1 Origins of the First Law 2.2 States and State Functions 2.3 Equilibrium States and Reversibility 2.4 Energy, Heat, and Work 2.5 Thermochemistry 2.6 Ideal Gas Relationships 2.7 Real Gases 3. The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics Biography: Rudolph Julius Emmanuel Clausius 3.1 The Carnot Cycle 3.2 Irreversible Processes 3.3 Molecular Interpretation of Entropy 3.4 The Calculation of Entropy Changes 3.5 The Third Law of Thermodynamics 3.6 Conditions for Equilibrium 3.7 The Gibbs Energy 3.8 Some Thermodynamic Relationships 3.9 The Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation 3.10 Thermodynamic Limitations to Energy Conversion 4. Chemical Equilibrium Biography: Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff 4.1 Chemical Equilibrium Involving Ideal Gases 4.2 Equilibrium in Nonideal Gaseous Systems 4.3 Chemical Equilibrium in Solution 4.4 Heterogeneous Equilibrium 4.5 Tests for Chemical Equilibrium 4.6 Shifts of Equilibrium at Constant Temperature 4.7 Coupling of Reactions 4.8 Temperature Dependence of Equilibrium Constants 4.9 Pressure Dependence of Equilibrium Constants 5. Phases and Solutions 5.1 Phase Recognition 5.2 Vaporization and Vapor Pressure 5.3 Classification of Transitions in Single-Component Systems 5.4 Ideal Solutions: Raoult's and Henry's Laws 5.5 Partial Molar Quantities 5.6 The Chemical Potential 5.7 Thermodynamics of Solutions 5.8 The Colligative Properties 6. Phase Equilibria 6.1 Equilibrium Between Phases 6.2 One-Component Systems 6.3 Binary Systems Involving Vapor 6.4 Condensed Binary Systems 6.5 Thermal Analysis 6.6 More Complicated Binary Systems 6.7 Crystal Solubility: The Krafft Boundary and Krafft Eutectic 6.8 Ternary Systems 7. Solutions of Electrolytes 7.1 Faraday's Laws of Electrolysis Biography: Michael Faraday 7.2 Molar Conductivity 7.3 Weak Electrolytes: The Arrhenius Theory Biography: Svante August Arrhenius 7.4 Strong Electrolytes 7.5 Independent Migration of Ions 7.6 Transport Numbers 7.7 Ion Conductivities 7.8 Thermodynamics of Ions 7.9 Theories of Ions in Solution 7.10 Activity Coefficients 7.11 Ionic Equilibria 7.12 Ionization of Water 7.13 The Donnan Equilibrium 8. Electrochemical Cells 8.1 The Daniell Cell 8.2 Standard Electrode Potentials 8.3 Thermodynamics of Electrochemical Cells 8.4 Types of Electrochemical Cells 8.5 Applications of emf Measurements 8.6 Fuel Cells 8.7 Photogalvanic Cells 8.8 Batteries, Old and New 9. Chemical Kinetics I. The Basic Ideas 9.1 Rates of Consumption and Formation 9.2 Rate of Reaction 9.3 Empirical Rate Equations 9.4 Analysis of Kinetic Results 9.5 Techniques for Very Fast Reactions 9.6 Molecular Kinetics 9.7 The Arrhenius Equation 9.8 Potential-Energy Surfaces 9.9 The Preexponential Factor Biography: Henry Eyring 9.10 Reactions in Solution 9.11 Reaction Dynamics 10. Chemical Kinetics II. Composite Mechanisms 10.1 Evidence for a Composite Mechanism 10.2 Types of Composite Reactions 10.3 Rate Equations for Composite Mechanisms 10.4 Rate Constants, Rate Coefficients, and Equilibrium Constants 10.5 Free-Radical Reactions 10.6 Photochemical Reactions 10.7 Radiation-Chemical Reactions 10.8 Explosions 10.9 Catalysis 10.10 Reactions in Solution: Some Special Features 10.11 Mechanisms of Polymerization in Macromolecules 10.12 Kinetics of Polymerization 10.13 Induction Periods, Oscillations, and Chaos 10.14 Electrochemical Dynamics 11. Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Structure 11.1 Electromagnetic Radiation and the Old Quantum Theory 11.2 Bohr's Atomic Theory 11.3 The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics 11.4 Schrodinger's Wave Mechanics 11.5 Quantum-Mechanical Postulates 11.6 Quantum Mechanics of Some Simple Systems 11.7 Quantum Mechanics of Hydrogenlike Atoms 11.8 Physical Significance of the Orbital Quantum Numbers 11.9 Angular Momentum and Magnetic Moment 11.10 The Rigid Linear Rotor 11.11 Spin Quantum Numbers 11.12 Many-Electron Atoms 11.13 Approximate Methods in Quantum Mechanics 12. The Chemical Bond Biography: Gilbert Newton Lewis 12.1 The Hydrogen Molecular-Ion, H2+ 12.2 The Hydrogen Molecule 12.3 Huckel Theory for More Complex Molecules 12.4 Valence-Bond Theory for More Complex Molecules 12.5 Symmetry in Chemistry 12.6 Symmetry of Molecular Orbitals Appendix: Character Tables 13. Foundations of Chemical Spectroscopy 13.1 Emission and Absorption Spectra 13.2 Atomic Spectra Biography: Gerhard Herzberg 13.3 Pure Rotational Spectra of Molecules 13.4 Vibrational-Rotational Spectra of Molecules 13.5 Raman Spectra 13.6 Electronic Spectra of Molecules Appendix: Symmetry Species Corresponding to Infrared and Raman Spectra 14. Some Modern Applications of Spectroscopy 14.1 Laser Spectroscopy 14.2 Spectral Line Widths 14.3 Types of Lasers 14.4 Laser Techniques for Chemistry 14.5 Magnetic Spectroscopy 14.6 Nuclear Magnetic Spectroscopy 14.7 Electron Magnetic Resonance (EMR) 14.8 Mossbauer Spectroscopy 14.9 Photoelectron Spectroscopy 14.10 Photoacoustic Spectroscopy 14.11 Chiroptical Methods 14.12 Mass Spectrometry 15. Statistical Mechanics 15.1 Forms of Molecular Energy Biography: Ludwig Boltzmann 15.2 Principles of Statistical Mechanics 15.3 The Partition Function 15.4 Thermodynamic Quantities from Partition Functions 15.5 The Partition Function for Some Special Cases 15.6 The Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Gibbs Energy Functions 15.7 The Calculation of Equilibrium Constants 15.8 Transition-State Theory 15.9 The Approach to Equilibrium 15.10 The Canonical Ensemble 16. The Solid State 16.1 Crystal Forms and Crystal Lattices 16.2 X-Ray Crystallography 16.3 Experimental Methods Biography: Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin 16.4 Theories of Solids 16.5 Statistical Thermodynamics of Crystals: Theories of Heat Capacities 16.6 Electrical Conductivity in Solids 16.7 Optical Properties of Solids 17. The Liquid State 17.1 Liquids Compared with Dense Gases 17.2 Liquids Compared with Solids 17.3 Intermolecular Forces 17.4 Theories and Models of Liquids 17.5 Water, the Incomparable Liquid 17.6 The Hydrophobic Effect 18. Surface Chemistry and Colloids 18.1 Adsorption 18.2 Adsorption Isotherms 18.3 Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics of Adsorption 18.4 Chemical Reactions on Surfaces 18.5 Surface Heterogeneity 18.6 The Structure of Solid Surfaces and of Adsorbed Layers 18.7 Surface Tension and Capillarity 18.8 Liquid Films on Surfaces Biography: Agnes Pockels 18.9 Colloidal Systems 19. Transport Properties 19.1 Viscosity 19.2 Diffusion 19.3 Sedimentation Appendix A Units, Quantities, and Symbols: The SI/IUPAC Recommendations Appendix B Physical Constants Appendix C Some Mathematical Relationships Appendix D Standard Enthalpies, Entropies, and Gibbs Energies of Formation Appendix E Character Tables for Some Important Symmetry Groups in Chemistry Answers to Problems Index

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With its clear explanations and practical pedagogy, Physical Chemistry is less intimidating to students than other texts, without sacrificing the mathematical rigor and comprehensiveness necessary for a junior-level physical chemistry course. The text's long-standing reputation for accessible writing provides clear instruction and superior problem-solving support for students.

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