"This fascinating and deeply researched book examines whether the US used biological weapons when it attacked Korea... It shows that the US government, in collaboration with the British and Canadian governments, spent GBP800,000,000 between 1951 and 1953 developing such weapons, based on those used by the Japanese army in its attack on China...The authors examine the evidence of germ-bearing insects, feathers and other carriers found after USAF bombing raids and look at the consequent outbreaks of unusual illnesses... The authors write, "we are led to the conclusion that the United States took the final step and secretly experimented with biological weapons in the Korean War." Read the book and decide for yourself."--Will Podmore, Morning Star, 9 August 1999Vom Verlag:
'"The United States and Biological Warfare" is a major contribution to our understanding of the past involvement by the US and Japanese governments with BW, with important, crucial implications for the future...Pieces of this story, including the Korean War allegations, have been told before, but never so authoritatively, and with such a convincing foundation in historical research...This is a brave and significant scholarly contribution on a matter of great importance to the future of humanity' - Richard Falk, Albert G. Milbank Professor of International Law and Practice, Princeton University.Questions of moral scruple about using public health and preventive medicine in reverse largely disappeared in an early post-Second world War decision that came as close to a pact with the devil as any in American political or military history. On the initiative of the service chiefs the United States granted immunity to a group of Japanese war criminals (who had conducted biological warfare experiments on Chinese cities and had murdered at least 3,000 allied prisoners of war, including some Americans, in the course of scientific germ war tests) in return for their cooperation in sharing their knowledge of biological warfare.'The Japanese program and the American deal remained one of the best kept official secrets of the two countries for over thirty-five years. The declassified documentary record remains conspicuously silent on how the Japanese program was integrated into the American...This study is an attempt to fill in this picture by bringing together our research in the United States, China, Japan, Britain, Canada and Europe, and the labors of others who have preceded us. Our hope is to contribute to the historical understanding of a moment of crisis when the limits of modern war expanded into a fundamentally new form of violence' - from the Introduction."The United States and Biological Warfare" argues persuasively that the United States experimented with and deployed biological weapons during the Korean War. Endicott and Hagerman explore the political and moral dimensions of this issue, asking what restraints were applied or forgotten in those years of ideological and political passion and military crisis. For the first time, there is hard evidence that the United States lied both to Congress and the American public in saying that the American biological warfare program was purely defensive and for retaliation only. The truth is that a large and sophisticated biological weapons system was developed as an offensive weapon of opportunity in the post-World War II years.From newly declassified American, Canadian, and British documents, and with the cooperation of the Chinese Central Archives in giving the authors the first access by foreigners to relevant classified documents, Endicott and Hagerman have been able to tell the previously hidden story of the extension of the limits of modern war to include the use of medical science, the most morally laden of sciences with respect to the sanctity of human life. They show how the germ warfare program developed collaboratively by Great Britain, Canada, and the United States during the Second World War, together with information gathered from the Japanese at the end of World War II about their biological warfare technology, was incorporated into an ongoing development program in the United States. Startling evidence from both Chinese and American sources is presented to make the case. It is an important book for anyone interested in the history and morality of modern warfare.
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