Molecular Beam Epitaxy: A Short History

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9780199695829: Molecular Beam Epitaxy: A Short History

The book is a history of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) as applied to the growth of semiconductor thin films (note that it does not cover the subject of metal thin films). It begins by examining the origins of MBE, first of all looking at the nature of molecular beams and considering their application to fundamental physics, to the development of nuclear magnetic resonance and to the invention of the microwave MASER. It shows how molecular beams of silane (SiH4) were used to study the nucleation of silicon films on a silicon substrate and how such studies were extended to compound semiconductors such as GaAs. From such surface studies in ultra-high vacuum the technique developed into a method of growing high quality single crystal films of a wide range of semiconductors. Comparing this with earlier evaporation methods of deposition and with other epitaxial deposition methods such as liquid phase and vapour phase epitaxy (LPE and VPE).

The text describes the development of MBE machines from the early 'home-made' variety to that of commercial equipment and show how MBE was gradually refined to produce high quality films with atomic dimensions. This was much aided by the use of various in-situ surface analysis techniques, such as reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and mass spectrometry, a feature unique to MBE. It looks at various modified versions of the basic MBE process, then proceed to describe their application to the growth of so-called 'low-dimensional structures' (LDS) based on ultra-thin heterostructure films with thickness of order a few molecular monolayers. Further chapters cover the growth of a wide range of different compounds and describe their application to fundamental physics and to the fabrication of electronic and opto-electronic devices.

The authors study the historical development of all these aspects and emphasise both the (often unexpected) manner of their discovery and development and the unique features which MBE brings to the growth of extremely complex structures with monolayer accuracy.

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About the Author:


John Orton, Professor, University of Nottingham,Tom Foxon, Professor, University of Notthingham.

John Orton won an Exhibition at Magdalen College, Oxford, where he obtained an honours degree in Physics, followed by a D Phil, with a thesis on Electron Spin Resonance in magnesium oxide. He joined Mullard (later Philips) Research Laboratories in 1960 to work on the development of the microwave maser. In 1968 he lead the Group responsible for developing compound semiconductor devices and continued to work in various aspects of semiconductor research, one of his principal interests being in the use of Molecular Beam Epitaxy to grow low-dimensional semiconductor structures. from 1989 to 1991 he was Visiting Professor in Nottingham. He was active within the Institute of Physics, serving on the Solid State Physics Committee, the Semiconductor Physics Committee and on the Editorial Board of J Phys D (Applied Physics). In 1991 he took up the Chair of Optoelectronics in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the University of Nottingham.

Tom Foxon obtained his B.Sc. in Physics at King's College, London and his Ph.D. in Materials Science in, at Battersea College. In 1969 he joined the Mullard (now Philips) Research Laboratories where he started the first work in Europe on MBE growth of III-V compounds. In 1987 he was appointed as a Visiting Professor in the Physics Department of the Technical University in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. In October 1991, he was appointed to his present post as a Professor in the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Nottingham, where in collaboration with Prof John Orton he set up the first work in Europe on the growth of group III-Nitride by MBE. He is currently Chairman of the UK Nitride Consortium, a member of the UK MBE group, a member of the EPSRC Peer Review College, a Fellow of the IOP, was President of the British Association for Crystal Growth (2006-2009) and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2006.

Review:


"A fascinating historical narrative of the development of the MBE technique, within which the authors have made key contributions. The book introduces us to the major developments and the pioneering research teams in the field, along a path which runs from the earliest experiments on vacuum deposition through to modern production epitaxy. On route, we learn about the basis of the MBE process and develop a deep understanding of the fundamentals. The book is a valuable résumé of the rapid progress made during the last half century and yet also provides an important reference work for those entering this exciting field." --Mark Hopkinson, University of Sheffield, UK


"This is a superbly written, comprehensive account of the development of molecular beam epitaxy and the remarkable impact this technique has had in producing complex nano-scale semiconductor devices." --Gareth Parry, Imperial College, London, UK


"Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) has become a standard technique and basic equipment is available for purchase from several manufacturers, but it was not always so. The authors of this book, both renowned in the field, take us back to the origins of the subject, starting some 50 years ago when the first tentative experiments were performed, before bringing us up-to-date. It concentrates on Si and III-V semiconductors and provides details of equipment, surface processes involved in growth and some of the important devices fabricated by this method. It is essential reading for graduate students and researchers using the technique, which since its inception has spread to include metals, oxides and many other materials, principally but not exclusively, those used in electronics and optoelectronics." --Emeritus Professor Bruce A Joyce FRS, Imperial College London, UK


"This book is certainly a very valuable printed addition to the memorable day-long special event "Meeting the MBE Pioneers" held at MBE2914 in Flagstaff/AZ in September 2014, and it is a unique source of reference for all those you could not attend this event. One of the authors (CTF) was involved himself, more than 45 years ago, in the extensive studies of the interaction of atomic and molecular beams with solid surfaces, which finally resulted in the ability to control matter with near atomic precision during crystal growth as used today in MBE. The reader, whether newcomer or experienced, can participate in the exciting historic journey of developing MBE to a practical crystal growth technique used worldwide in research and industry." --Professor Klaus H. Ploog, previously Director, Paul Drude Institute for Solid State Electronics


"The book is written in a very clear style, which contrasts with the complexity of its subject. All the basic ideas necessary for understanding are described in the text, while well-constructed 'boxes' are provided, containing necessary mathematical equations. Experimental techniques are thoroughly described, well supported by appropriate diagrams." --Rene Bimbot, Revue d'histoire des sciences


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John Orton
Verlag: Oxford University Press Jun 2015 (2015)
ISBN 10: 0199695822 ISBN 13: 9780199695829
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Buchbeschreibung Oxford University Press Jun 2015, 2015. Buch. Buchzustand: Neu. Neuware - A unique description of the historical development of semiconductor devices and their application to human needs. It provides a brief overview of the whole spectrum of semiconductor physics, devices and applications, but is unusual in that it is written from a historical perspective. 516 pp. Englisch. Artikel-Nr. 9780199695829

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